Courtesy Kyle McDonaldWorld Science U is a new platform for teaching science to the masses. Brian Greene, professor of physics and mathematics at Columbia University, has launched a new online website open to anyone. All you have to do is register and start learning. Participants can get questions answered, enroll in short or long (8-10 weeks) courses covering everything from basic physics to quantum entanglement to black holes and parallel universes.
Professor Greene has written several books on physics and cosmology such as The Fabric of the Cosmos and The Elegant Universe and will be involved in teaching the initial topics.
The World Science U website allows users to post questions, or (if they think they know more than professor Greene) post their own topics and hypotheses.
I watched one of the short courses that were available right now (The Special Theory of Relativity) and found it fascinating and relatively (pun!) easy to understand. Each module is comprised of a lecture followed by an "office hours" session for questions with Professor Greene (this part confused me) and a discussion period with other students. Versions of the courses with more emphasis on mathematics are also available. The site is in the process of being launched so none of the longer university-level courses were available yet - but should be soon. When they do go live, students will be able to earn World Science U certification upon their successful course completion. Greene will also participate in occasional live discussions on the site.
If you have an interest in physics, I'd say it's well worth your time to enroll in World Science U.
World Science U
Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/TAMUCheck out this NASA photograph of Earth taken January 31st from the surface of Mars by the Curiosity rover. I hope everyone had their eyes open. If you're having trouble making out our dazzling planet in the Martian evening sky, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory page points it (and our moon!) out for you here.
Today is March 14 (3-14) which means it's once again Pi Day, a time to celebrate that irrational number, 3.14, whose post decimal digits go on forever and ever ad infinitum and is represented by the Greek letter pi. Civilizations have known about it and used it for centuries. This short video gives a good overview of its importance.
Courtesy bob8son (spiderweb); (graphic by Mark Ryan)This month marks the 25th anniversary of the World Wide Web. According to this PEW Internet Project website, the ubiquitous system now connecting much of the world was started back in 1989 as a European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) project named ENQUIRE. The internet service, America On Line (AOL), began that same year.
I was an early subscriber to AOL and one of my earliest memories of discovering the power of the web was in the spring of 1991. My brother and I wanted to view the total solar eclipse taking place that July across Hawaii and Mexico and were trying to find flights to either place. The demand was high and remaining flights to Hawaii turned out to be way out of our price range (which was just as well since most eclipse viewers there got clouded out). We considered driving into Mexico from someplace in the southern US but that was predicted to be a nightmare of frozen traffic, so we tried to find flights into Mexico but were having no luck finding anything reasonable on the phone with airline reservationists. So I searched on-line (strictly text-only; no graphics whatsoever) for something in our time and price range and came up with flights to and from the Mexican west coast town of Puerto Vallarta for a very reasonable price. Armed with that information I called the airline directly and guided the reservationist to the specific flights (which she seemed unaware of) and purchased our tickets.
Puerto Vallarta, by the way, was located just on the outside of the predicted edge of totality but we hooked up with an astronomy expedition that bussed us a few kilometers north and into the path of moon's shadow. A very satisfying eclipse watching experience thanks in part to the Internet.
Happy anniversary to the World Wide Web!
PEW Internet Project website
I want to fly like an eagle to the sea.....
fly like an eagle, let my spirit carry me.
Jean-Michel Claverie and Chantal Abergel of Aix-Marseille University in France and their colleagues cut up pieces of permafrost samples - supplied by scientists from the Russian Academy of Science - and added them to petri dishes of amoebae only to see the one-celled animals ripped apart by unknown viruses. They isolated the attacking, larger-than-usual virus and named it Pithovirus sibericum, because of its resemblance to an earthenware jar. The permafrost samples had been collected from a frozen riverbank in Siberia in 2000.
The discovery brings the total number of known "giant viruses" to three. The extra-large viruses are about 25 percent larger than normal, genetically more complex, and composed of hardier stock.
"Among known viruses, the giant viruses tend to be very tough, almost impossible to break open," said Claverie and Abergel. "Special environments such as deep ocean sediments and permafrost are very good preservers of microbes because they are cold, anoxic and in the dark."
Two other giant viruses Mimivirus and Pandoravirus were also discovered by Claverle and Abergel in the last decade. The latter, in my opinion, is a disturbingly great name for this type of thing. But so far only the pithovirus has been observed in the laboratory infecting contemporary life forms. Luckily, none of them pose a threat to humans, but that's not to say future giant viruses thawed out of frozen environments or released by retreating ice caps won't be.
"I don't see why they wouldn't be able to survive under the same conditions," said Claverie.
Results of the research appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Courtesy M. McCormickFor more than 20 years, zebra mussels have gone unchecked in midwest waters. Introduced to North America as stow-away passengers on the bottoms of Great Lakes shipping vessels that came from Europe, the invasive species have exploded to fresh waters in 34 states at an alarming rate.
But their days may be numbered. A New York-based researcher has discovered a bacterium that can kill zebra mussels (and also the related invasive species quagga mussels) without disrupting the rest of the food web.
After rounds of lab testing, the Environmental Protection Agency has okayed the commercial production of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, which can then be applied to waters and kill the menacing mussels. In lab tests, the bacterium killed over 90 percent of the the invasive mussels in came in contact with.
Along with pushing out other species in the waters, the invasive mussels have also become a nuisance by clogging up intake pipes at water plants and attaching themselves to docks, piers and other submerged water equipment. Plans are still being developed on how to apply this new bacterium to the waters. All wise zebra mussels might want to start packing their bages and heading back to Europe before they find out what this new bacterium has in store for them!
Courtesy Leonard G.A new study claims that positioning large, off-shore wind farms in the path of oncoming tropical storms and hurricanes can reduce the damage those storms inflict. The extra electricity they produce is just an added bonus.
The study's findings contend that "tens of thousands of turbines can lower a hurricane's wind speed up to 92 mph and reduce its storm surge up to 79%."
But is it realistic to think that such a big wind operation could actually be built? Currently there are no operating water-based wind farms in the United States. The largest off-shore wind turbine sites being considered for construction have about 200 turbines planned. Those facilities are being planned off the coasts of Texas and New England. There are small-sized off-shore wind plants in Europe and China.
But if a huge wind operation was feasible, the study estimated that such a plant would have saved a lot of damage in the 2005 Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Somef 78,000 wind turbines — each 50 feet tall — could have slowed Katrina's wind speeds up to 78 mph and cut its storm surge up to 79%, the report from Stanford University said.
What do you think? Is this an idea ahead of its time? Is it pie – make that blowing pie – in the sky? Share your thoughts here with other Science Buzz readers.
Photographer Colin Legg in Perth, Australia shot this very cool real-time video of our Moon passing in front of the planet Saturn. The event, which in astronomical circles is known as an occultation, occurred on Saturday (a day named after the same planet) February 22, 2014.
Courtesy Clover_1Last Christmas, my son's girlfriend introduced me to honey-flavored yogurt, a delicious concoction of creamy sweetness. I've never been a fan of yogurt, but I immediately fell in love with this stuff, and try to keep a container of it on-hand in the fridge at all times. I can't seem to get enough of it.
One of the reasons it's so tasty is because it's made with whole milk which makes it high in fat, and therefore will make anyone who ingests it high in fat, too. Right? Maybe not.
Two new studies seem to point to just the opposite. Several middle-aged men who participated in a Swedish study and consumed high-fat dairy products, were tracked over a 12 year period and showed much less propensity of becoming obese when compared to men who followed a low or no high-fat diet in the same study. The research appeared in the journal Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care.
In the second study involving the meta-analysis of 16 empirical studies showed that - despite working under the hypothesis that a diet of high-fat foods leads to higher heart disease risk and contributes to obesity - no evidence supporting the claim was found. Actually, according to the study which appeared in the European Journal of Nutrition, consumption of high-fat dairy products were instead associated with a lower obesity risk.
Non-fat and low-fat yogurts still command a larger portion of the market but on the organic side of the things products with higher saturated fat content is, surprisingly, on the upswing. It's unclear why that is. A previous study involving children also showed that a low-fat diet was more likely to lead to obesity.
"There may be bio-active substances in the milk fat that may be altering our metabolism in a way that helps us utilize the fat and burn it for energy, rather than storing it in our bodies," said Greg Miller, of the National Dairy Council.
Besides the newly associated weight benefits, whole organic milk also contains higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids which help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It's also speculated that consumption of higher fat content may lead to a greater and faster feeling of being satisfied and full, and lead to a sooner cessation of the urge to eat.
For purely scientific reasons I'll be heading for the refrigerator in a moment to see if that's the case.