During the textile manufacturing process, excess dyes are sometimes discharged as wastewater resulting in water pollution downstream. In recent years, particular attention has focused on water pollution in China resulting from indigo dyes used to create the distinctive blue color of denim blue jeans.
Some nanoscientists are looking at ways to help remove potentially harmful dyes chemicals from water.
Scientists at Colombia’s Universidad Industrial de Santander and Cornell University have come up with a cheap and simple process using natural fibers embedded with nano particles to quickly remove dye from water.
The research takes advantage of nano-sized cavities found in cellulose; plant fibers can be immersed in a solution of sodium permanganate and then treated with ultrasound causing manganese oxide molecules grow in the tiny cellulose cavities. The treated fibers are able to quickly break down and remove the dye from the water.
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Mount Etna, located on the Italian island of Sicily, has been very active lately, as seen in this spectacular video by Boris Behncke, a researcher with Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. The stratovolcano is formed along the northern boundary of the African Plate as it collides with the Eurasian Plate. The shots of the exploding lava bubbles are fantastic and are reminiscent of a Fourth of July fireworks display. The images with the setting Moon are serenely beautiful. Etna is also blowing some great smoke rings!
In other volcano news, the rumblings of a new volcano have been detected under a half-mile thick sheet of ice in West Antarctica. Using seismograph data gathered from several field sites across Antarctica researchers - led by Prof. Doug Weins and PhD student Amanda Lough of Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri - think the volcano could be the newest in a chain of volcanos migrating under the ice-covered continent. Radar images gathered by researchers from the University of Texas have confirmed volcanic ash encased in the ice near the source of the detected activity. The seismic rumblings originate somewhere between 6 and 9 miles beneath the bedrock surface, too deep to be caused by sub-surface glacial movement or even tectonic activity. The study appears in the advanced online issue of Nature Geoscience.
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When someone tells you about your nice features you should tell them how fun it is to excavate. I am talking about features in archaeology, of course. A feature is information that contains a cultural importance and cannot be taken to the lab the way it was found.
Examples features are hearths and post-molds. These features are located when the soils have certain qualities in them. Since archaeologists must keep digging to learn more from their block, the feature is destroyed as you dig the feature out. Another example is when artifacts are found together or next to other features. You can see this when artifacts are given context to where they are found. A group of shells found together has more cultural value than individual artifacts by themselves in an excavation unit. Just as how a piece of bone have more meaning when it is found in a fire hearth. As I have said before, the further we excavate down into our blocks we destroy the features, so in order for features to be represented, archaeologists record the features they find as they excavate.
To record features that are a part of the soil, archaeologists draw and map out the block that they dig with each layer that they dig out. In doing so they will have somewhat of a 3-D map of where the feature was in their block. At the Sheffield site we normally dig ten centimeters per layer and record what we find on the surface. When we find a feature we start digging in five centimeters layers. We dig in smaller layers so that we can record the shape of the feature more accurately. The behavior of how we dig also changes. Sometimes we dig out certain sections of the feature in order to record how the feature looks from the side.
Archeology is ultimately a destructive science and keeping a good record is key for a good analysis. The features we see as we dig will not physically be there when we go analyze our data in the lab. The more data we record from our features the more chances we have of making a cultural connection with our findings. Features are one of the most important parts of archeology because it gives the artifacts and other data more meaning to why they might be there. Without features archeology would just end up as a display of objects without any cultural significance.
Folks have noticed, and asked about how the winds pick up shortly after sunrise and calm down after sunset. It is the daytime heating of the ground by the sun that leads to this difference between calm nights and windy days.
The wind usually increases with height above the surface. The wind several thousand feet above the ground is almost always stronger than that experienced near the ground. Friction is a force that causes the wind close to the ground to move more slowly. Friction decelerates the wind in the same way a rough road surface slows you down on a bicycle.
On many calm nights, there is still wind blowing far overhead. When the sun is up, it warms the surface of the Earth, which in turn warms the atmosphere above it. The warm air rises and the displaced air is replaced by the air above. These thermals mix up the air, bringing the faster moving air from above down near the surface. As the daytime heating goes on, more air from above is mixed down and the wind speed picks up.
When the sun sets, the ground cools down. This cooling ground conducts heat away from the air that it touches and so the air near the ground cools down, cooling faster than the layers higher in the atmosphere. This creates a stable area with cool air near the ground and warmer air above. As the word suggests, “stable” means it is difficult to move the air layer, keeping the fast moving air above from mixing down to the surface.
Of course, if there is a low pressure area in the region, the winds will blow day or night.
Courtesy NASAA massive tropical cyclone has been battering the Philippines since yesterday. Known as Typhoon Haiyan (Cyclone Yolanda in the Philippines) the super storm is said to be about 3.5 times larger than Hurricane Katrina that devastated New Orleans in 2005, with sustained wind speeds of 195 miles per hour and gusts up to 225 mph. That's one powerful typhoon! It reminds me of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Reports on the number of deaths attributed to Typhoon Haiyan have been sketchy at best due to loss of communications in the area. Check out some of the amazing images at EarthSky.org.
This animated piece is a few years old but worth viewing. Here's more info from the Youtube page:
"Japanese artist Isao Hashimoto has created a beautiful, undeniably scary time-lapse map of the 2053 nuclear explosions which have taken place between 1945 and 1998, beginning with the Manhattan Project's "Trinity" test near Los Alamos and concluding with Pakistan's nuclear tests in May of 1998. This leaves out North Korea's two alleged nuclear tests in this past decade (the legitimacy of both of which is not 100% clear).
Each nation gets a blip and a flashing dot on the map whenever they detonate a nuclear weapon, with a running tally kept on the top and bottom bars of the screen. Hashimoto, who began the project in 2003, says that he created it with the goal of showing"the fear and folly of nuclear weapons." It starts really slow — if you want to see real action, skip ahead to 1962 or so — but the buildup becomes overwhelming.“
Courtesy Charlie Harry FrancisThanks to a Chinese scientist's work at synthesizing the luminescence protein from jellyfish, a UK food creator, named Charlie Harry Francis has developed an ice cream that glows in the dark. Francis markets home-made ice cream confections (and contraptions) under the aptly named Lick Me I'm Delicious. The very act of licking the ice cream agitates "calcium activated proteins" within the concoction that causes it to light up in a luminescent sort of way. But before you dash out to your favorite ice cream parlor, keep in mind that one scoop of the glorious glowing glop will set you back about $220!
Courtesy Andrew ScottYou'd think by now - after centuries of studying it - that we'd know everything there is to know about the human body. But this week surgeons at University Hospital Leuven in Belgium announced the discovery of a new ligament in the knee. Called the anterolateral ligament (ALL) the newly discovered body part attaches between the lower end of the femur and the head of the tibia, reinforcing the connection between the two bones. The unknown ligament came to light as the doctors investigated the causes of difficulties patients suffered during rehabilitation from ACL tears, a common injury among some athletes.
Interestingly, it was a paper written by a French surgeon in the 19th century that led the doctors to the ligament. The author of an 1879 paper postulated the ALL's existence but it took until now for it to be actually located. The two doctors who discovered it say the ligament exists in about 97 percent of all patients.
Courtesy Jon BodsworthWe've documented the travails leading to the demise of young King Tut many times here on Science Buzz. But headlines today just add more fuel to the King Tut woe fire (so to speak). Tests done on a small fragment of Tut's mummy that is held in Great Britain show that his mummy caught fire. And that fire, researchers believe, occurred after Tut was mummified and entombed in his sarcophagus through spontaneous combustion from the mixture of embalming oils, wrapping fabric and oxygen. A virtual autopsy done as part of this research also concludes that Tut died from being run over by a chariot. All in all, not a very good day of news for young King Tut.
Courtesy Majail0711Hey, it's Halloween. Do you have a seance to go to tonight after you finish your trick and treating?
And what's a good seance without a Ouija board? You know it's the quickest way to connect with the dead and find out those mysterious secrets that aren't accessible any other way.
It's been quite a while since I last touched a Ouija board. But I do remember being amazed how that little pad just skimmed across the board to give us answers to our questions. It's fun and mystical. And (SPOILER ALERT) it's all based on science.
The current issue of Smithsonian delves into the history and science behind the board. You can get all the details right here. Since the board's beginnings, the creators had insights into the ideometer effect. That's a fancy term for the automatic muscular movements that take place in our bodies without our conscious will or volition. It's like what happens to us when we cry during the sad part of a movie or flick away an annoying bug pestering us. People using a Ouija board are subtly moving the pointer around the board without realizing they are doing so.
Research conducted a couple years ago quantified what was happening. People were asked random fact-based questions that were challenging. Just hearing the questions and answering without a Ouija board, participants got about 50 percent correct, which was what researchers expected. But when participants were asked similar questions while seated at the Ouija board, that correct response rate jumped up to 65 percent.
The researchers account of the difference by people tapping into their non-conscious knowledge and using the ideometer effect to guide the Ouija board pointer across the board. And people actually do better answering questions on topics that they don't think they know the answer to than topics that they do.
So, if you do happen to find yourself sitting around a Ouija board tonight, be careful what you ask it. You might just get the answer to something you've been burying away in your mind for a long time!!!
Happy Halloween and feel free to share your observations here with other Buzz readers on the science of Ouija boards.