Stories tagged History and Nature of Science

Oct
05
2011

You are Cordially Invited

Publication Party, Public Reading, and Book Signing Event

for
FOOL ME TWICE: Fighting the Assault on Science in America
by
SHAWN LAWRENCE OTTO

Introduction by Don Shelby
Emcee Jim Lenfestey

"A gripping analysis of America's anti-science crisis."
Starred Kirkus Review
“In this incredible book, Otto explores the devaluation of science in America.”
Starred Publishers Weekly Review

You know you want to read it. Click here for more info
You know you want to read it. Click here for more infoCourtesy Shawn Lawerence Otto

Tuesday October 18, 2011 at 7PM
Target Performance Hall, Open Book
1011 Washington Avenue South, Minneapolis
(click here for directions and free parking)
This event is free and open to the public

sponsored by
the Loft Literary Center
the Science Museum of Minnesota

no reservation required, but click here to RSVP to help us plan

Beer, wine and light refreshments served
Books for sale at the event
Free book by drawing. To qualify: A) post about the event on Facebook B) tweet at the event with hashtag #FoolMeTwice and mention @ShawnOtto

Sep
19
2011

According to their website, National Fossil Day is a "celebration organized to promote public awareness and stewardship of fossils, as well as to foster a greater appreciation of their scientific and educational value." This year the celebration is set for October 12, and like last year, I'll probably be doing several posts regarding fossils and the event itself over the next couple of weeks. So with that in mind, here's my first contribution.

Skull of Amia uintaensis (bowfin): Large and well-preserved fossil fish from Fossil Lake deposits shows fine detail, including scales and skin. The full fossil is 49 inches in length. Science Museum of Minnesota collection.
Skull of Amia uintaensis (bowfin): Large and well-preserved fossil fish from Fossil Lake deposits shows fine detail, including scales and skin. The full fossil is 49 inches in length. Science Museum of Minnesota collection.Courtesy Mark Ryan
Tucked in a corner of the Dinosaur and Fossils Gallery here at the Science Museum of Minnesota is a display of fossil fish from the famous Green River Formation. The display offers visitors a look at some of the most well known fossils in the world. Visit a rock shop, natural history store, souvenir shop, or museum just about anywhere and you’ll find fish fossils from the Green River Formation for sale. Literally millions of fossils have been extracted from the formation, so it’s no surprise at all to find some in our paleontology gallery. The display represents only a fraction of the Green River fossils in the Science Museum of Minnesota collection.

Fossil Butte: The butte stands in Fossil Butte National Monument and represents the ancient deposition remains of the center of Fossil Lake in western Wyoming. Limestone and mudstone layers near the top of the butte are rich in fossil fish and other fauna and flora from the Eocene Epoch.
Fossil Butte: The butte stands in Fossil Butte National Monument and represents the ancient deposition remains of the center of Fossil Lake in western Wyoming. Limestone and mudstone layers near the top of the butte are rich in fossil fish and other fauna and flora from the Eocene Epoch.Courtesy Mark Ryan
The sources of this splendid array of extraordinary fossils are the deposits left by three freshwater lakes that existed around 50 million years ago during the Eocene Epoch. These ephemeral bodies of water existed across 17 million years of time, and not all at the same time. Lake Gosiute was the largest in area with a diameter of about 200 miles. Lake Uinta had the most surface area and was the shallowest and existed the longest. Fossil Lake was the smallest and the shortest-lived – but the deepest. The lakes existed in a subtropical environment flush with all sorts of animal life from insects to mammals. More than 20 species of fish populated the waters while crocodiles, turtles and other reptiles basked along lake shores lined with lush forests of palm and fig trees. Birds and bats flew through the sky. Ferns sprouted in the shadowed woodlands of oaks and maples that grew up the slopes of the surrounding mountains. Fir and spruce trees existed in the higher elevations. Fossil remains from this past life are found in all of the basins where the three lakes once existed, but Fossil Lake, as its name implies, produces the most abundant Green River Formation fossils, especially fossil fish.

Fossil Butte: The rich fossil deposits were first discovered by workers for the Union Pacific Railroad.
Fossil Butte: The rich fossil deposits were first discovered by workers for the Union Pacific Railroad.Courtesy Mark Ryan
Railroad workers helping expand the Union Pacific railroad in the mid-1800s first discovered the fossil deposits near the town of Green River, Wyoming. The discovery soon drew the attention of scientists. A geologist named Dr. John Evans collected some of the first fossils from the region in 1856, and Philadelphia paleontologist, Joseph Leidy, soon after described for the first time, Knightia eocaena, the most common fossil fish found in the formation. Edward Drinker Cope, another paleontologist, also collected from the deposits and wrote several important papers starting in 1870.

Heliobastis radiens: A stingray found in the Green River Formation deposits. Science Museum of Minnesota collection.
Heliobastis radiens: A stingray found in the Green River Formation deposits. Science Museum of Minnesota collection.Courtesy Mark Ryan
The fossils on display at the Science Museum include Amia, Knightia, Diplomystus, and the exquisite stingray Heliobatis all preserved in buff-colored slabs consisting of soft lamination of mudstone, limestone, and volcanic ash. There’s also a slab of garfish, and an unlabelled predator named Priscacara next to the large palm frond on the wall near the entrance. Lance Grande (a graduate of the University of Minnesota and paleontologist at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago) is considered the leading expert in the fossil remains found in the Green River Formation. His book Paleontology of the Green River Formation (which I referenced heavily for this post) is considered a classic, and contains photos of many specimens found in the Science Museum’s collection.

The two main fish-bearing units in the strata are the 18-inch Layer and the Split-Fish Layer. The formation is considered a laggerstatte (which means storage place) where nearly an entire ecological system is finely preserved in the fossil record. Several lagerstätten exist around the world but the Cambrian-aged Burgess Shale in British Columbia, and the Late Jurassic-aged Solnhofen quarry in Germany are probably the two best known.

Green River Formation: Strata of the famed fossil-rich formation visible in Fossil Butte National Monument. The butte represents deposits from what was once the center of Fossil Lake that existed 50 million years ago during the Eocene Epoch in what is now western Wyoming.
Green River Formation: Strata of the famed fossil-rich formation visible in Fossil Butte National Monument. The butte represents deposits from what was once the center of Fossil Lake that existed 50 million years ago during the Eocene Epoch in what is now western Wyoming.Courtesy Mark Ryan
The deposited remains of what used to be the center of Fossil Lake today form a high butte in western Wyoming that towers a thousand feet above the Visitor Center at Fossil Butte National Monument. The monument was established in 1972 and is located 9 miles west of Kemmerer, Wyoming in the extreme southwestern corner of the state. Despite its somewhat isolated location, it’s well worth going out of your way to see.

Abandoned workers' shelter: Historic Quarry at Fossil Butte National Monument.
Abandoned workers' shelter: Historic Quarry at Fossil Butte National Monument.Courtesy Mark Ryan
My brother Pat and I visited the area on one of our recent geo-trips out west. We first stopped at the Fossil Butte visitor center where, not surprisingly, some extremely rare and high quality Green River fossils were on display, including insects, lizards, turtles, crocodiles, birds, bats, and other mammals. Finely preserved fossils of leaves, cattails, flowers and fruit are also on display. We watched a short film explaining the area and the fossils found there, then Pat and I headed out to a nearby abandoned fossil quarry within the park for a bit of exploration on our own. We parked in the designated lot just off the highway, grabbed our packs and some water, and began our ascent to the Historic Quarry. The climb along the 2.5 mile hiking trail was no picnic – it took about an hour to get to the top, but information signs dot the trail to guide and inform you as you go along. Historic Quarry: Pat Ryan stands level with the fossil-rich 18-Inch Layer located in the abandoned quarry at the top of Fossil Butte.
Historic Quarry: Pat Ryan stands level with the fossil-rich 18-Inch Layer located in the abandoned quarry at the top of Fossil Butte.Courtesy Mark Ryan
And the view of the wide Wyoming landscape is breath-taking. The main trail eventually runs parallel to the butte and along that stretch is an a-frame shack used by workers who excavated the quarry back when it was still operating. Every once in a while we’d come upon a slab of rock that had fallen from the fossil layer above. You could tell this by its buff color, plus one we examined contained the partial remains of the head of a Diplosmystus. The regular hiking trail took us about 600 feet above the highway, but to get to the 18-inch Layer we had to take a spur trail another couple hundred feet up above that.

The 18-Inch Layer exposed at Fossil Butte's Historic Quarry: Fossils from this layer of the Green River Formation are exhibited in museums all over the world.
The 18-Inch Layer exposed at Fossil Butte's Historic Quarry: Fossils from this layer of the Green River Formation are exhibited in museums all over the world.Courtesy Pat Ryan
The 18-inch Layer contains some of the best preserved fossils in the world, and is composed of limestone, oil shale, and volcanic ash. The lacustrine (lake) deposits are laid out in alternating pairs (varves) of light and dark layers each representing an annual cycle of sedimentation. Overall there’s about 4000 years of deposition represented in the layer. Three feet beneath the 18-inch Layer (but not exposed at the Historic Quarry) is a second major fossil unit named the Split Fish Layer (or sandwich layers). This unit is about 6-1/2 feet thick and is so called because when the rock is separated, the fossils themselves split between the top and bottom layers diminishing the quality. When the layers of the 18-inch Layer are separated the fossils are found on only one sheet and protected under a layer of matrix that has to be expertly removed. The Split Fish Layer fossils usually need little if any preparation. According to Fossil Butte museum curator, Arvid Aase, there actually exists several so-called split fish layers, three of them above the 18-inch Layer, along with what are called a mini-fish layer and gastropod bed.

The fossilization process that occurred in the Green River Formation is unique in that the lakes contained a nearly perfect and ideal environment for preserving the delicate remains of its biosphere. A constant rain of calcium carbonate suspended in the waters insured that any dead creature or plant lying on the bottom would be covered and protected from bacteria or the elements. The deeper waters were probably anoxic – meaning lacking oxygen – which aided in further protecting the remains. The fossils are wonderfully preserved, showing fine skeletal details, scales, skin, and even feathers in some cases, all preserved as delicate carbon traces of the once living entity.

Knightia eocaena: The most common genus of fish found in the Green River Formation. Remains are sometimes found in mass mortality layers such as shown here. Science Museum of Minnesota collection.
Knightia eocaena: The most common genus of fish found in the Green River Formation. Remains are sometimes found in mass mortality layers such as shown here. Science Museum of Minnesota collection.Courtesy Mark Ryan
It’s thought that algal blooms sometimes occurred in the lakes during the warmer seasons resulting in mass mortalities of thousands of fish. Large slabs containing more fossil fish than you can count are still being mined from the area.

When I’m working my Tuesday afternoon shift in the Dinosaur and Fossils gallery at the museum I often carry with me a Green River Formation fossil of a leaf to share with visitors. I’ll scratch the matrix with a key or fingernail to allow visitors to experience the oily odor that that emanates from within the rock. Actually the odor is from kerogen a bituminous organic compound in the rock that serves as a source for oil shale, considered a substitute for crude oil. The Green River Formation contains the largest oil shale deposits in the world greatly exceeding the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia.

Be aware that since the Historic Quarry trail is part of Fossil Butte National Monument, collecting of any kind of fossils is prohibited within its borders but fortunately several commercial operations in the area allow you to enter a quarry for a fee and dig up your very own fossils to take home. I’ve never done this so I can’t vouch for any of these commercial dig sites but I am including some links below for some of the more well-known ones in the area.

But even if you can’t make it out to Fossil Butte National Monument this year, you can still come the Science Museum of Minnesota and see our collection, or visit a natural history museum in your own area. Chances are they’ll have some fabulous Green River Formation fossils on display to share with you.

SOURCE and LINKS
GRF info at the Virtual Fossil Museum
Collection and preparation of fossil fish
Historical Geology of the GRF
Ulrich Quarry Fossil Gallery
Warfield Fossil Quarry

Jul
26
2011

On this day (July 26) in 1879, in a desolate region of southeastern Wyoming, Arthur Lakes, a fossil collector engaged by Yale paleontologist O. C. Marsh to oversee his interests in the dinosaur bone beds at Como Bluff, wrote the following passage in his field journal:

"Men came back with report of discovery of very big bones at a spot between Quarries 8 and 9. Heavy thunderstorms hailstones fell the size of hens eggs. Telegraph wires broken.“

Arthur Lakes journal entry July 26, 1879.

Quarry 10 at Como Bluff, Wyoming: The bones of the famous "Brontosaurus excelsus" (Apatosaurus excelsus) were discovered here in 1879. The low ridge making up Como Bluff extends for about 7 miles, and has produced abundant dinosaur, reptile, fish and mammal fossils from the Late Jurassic period.
Quarry 10 at Como Bluff, Wyoming: The bones of the famous "Brontosaurus excelsus" (Apatosaurus excelsus) were discovered here in 1879. The low ridge making up Como Bluff extends for about 7 miles, and has produced abundant dinosaur, reptile, fish and mammal fossils from the Late Jurassic period.Courtesy Mark Ryan
The men mentioned were Bill Reed and Edward Ashley, two other Marsh workers at Como. The new dig site would soon be designated as Quarry 10, and the big bones those of a huge sauropod Marsh would later christen Brontosaurus excelsus. As most of you know by now, the genus name, Brontosaurus, which is Greek for “thunder lizard” would later be demoted to a mere synonym of the previously discovered Apatosaurus.

Apatosaurus vs Brontosaurus sacra: Figure illustrations created under the direction of O. C. Marsh show distinct differences between the sacra of Apatosaurus ajax (left) and "Brontosaurus excelsus" (right). Marsh thought they signified different genera, but didn't realize that the Apatosaurus represented a juvenile specimen and the Brontosaurus an adult one. A quarter-century after their discoveries, Elmer Riggs determined the two dinosaurs were of the same genus. As it grew in size, additional vertebrae of Apatosaurus fused in the sacrum to reinforce its pelvis.
Apatosaurus vs Brontosaurus sacra: Figure illustrations created under the direction of O. C. Marsh show distinct differences between the sacra of Apatosaurus ajax (left) and "Brontosaurus excelsus" (right). Marsh thought they signified different genera, but didn't realize that the Apatosaurus represented a juvenile specimen and the Brontosaurus an adult one. A quarter-century after their discoveries, Elmer Riggs determined the two dinosaurs were of the same genus. As it grew in size, additional vertebrae of Apatosaurus fused in the sacrum to reinforce its pelvis.Courtesy Mark Ryan
Brontosaurus’s species designation, excelsus, means “to exceed in number” and refers to the number of vertebrae in the dinosaur’s sacrum. Marsh’s Apatosaurus ajax had only three fused vertebrae in its sacrum, Brontosaurus had five. You can see what I mean in the side by side comparison of the figures Marsh had made of the fossil remains. That difference led the Yale professor to think he had two separate kinds of animals on his hands. But in truth, and as paleontologist Elmer Riggs declared in 1903, the two dinosaurs were actually the same genus. Although larger, the Apatosaurus, it turns out, was an immature specimen, while "Brontosaurus" was an adult one. It seems, as this very large type of dinosaur grew even larger, two more vertebrae fused into the sacrum to help reinforce the pelvis.

"Thunder Lizard" at the Peabody Museum: "Brontosaurus excelsus" (Apatosaurus excelsus) stands above other denizens discovered at Wyoming's Como Bluff. After its discovery its original name was determined to be scientifically invalid, it remains part of the Yale dinosaur's official record.
"Thunder Lizard" at the Peabody Museum: "Brontosaurus excelsus" (Apatosaurus excelsus) stands above other denizens discovered at Wyoming's Como Bluff. After its discovery its original name was determined to be scientifically invalid, it remains part of the Yale dinosaur's official record.Courtesy Mark Ryan
The sauropod first discovered on this date at Como Bluff is now known as Apatosaurus excelsus. But even though his extracted bones have stood quietly for 80 years at Yale’s Peabody Museum, the Thunder Lizard’s original name remains embedded in our culture. Since “Brontosaurus” is considered an invalid scientific name, it shouldn't be italicize when used but rather bracketed between quotation marks. Personally, I still prefer the name “Brontosaurus”, which Marsh used to describe the sound he imagined the huge dinosaur made while walking across the Jurassic terrain. And doesn’t the original name seem even more fitting since the great Thunder Lizard’s very first entry into human consciousness took place during a heavy thunderstorm?

SOURCES & LINKS
More about paleontologist O. C. Marsh
Apatosaurus ajax information
More about the Apatosaurus/”Brontosaurus” confusion
Apatosaurus (“Brontosaurus”) defined
"Brontosaurus" at Yale's Peabody Museum

Jul
12
2011

The Route: We will be entering at entry point #16 Moose/Portage River and exiting at entry point #43 Bower Trout Lake.   The route was designed to expose us to a wide range of use areas within the BWCAW.
The Route: We will be entering at entry point #16 Moose/Portage River and exiting at entry point #43 Bower Trout Lake. The route was designed to expose us to a wide range of use areas within the BWCAW.Courtesy The Great Pack Out
In honor of National Public Lands Day (9/24/2011), my brother and I are going to spend two weeks paddling over 120 miles across the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) documenting and collecting all the trash that we find. My brother and I have been paddling in the BWCAW for 23 years and over the last few years have noticed an increase in the amount of garbage we encounter on portages and at campsites. So we started wondering how much trash is actually out there. Is it isolated to the highly used areas near the edges or endemic to the entire BWCAW? In doing some research on the wilderness we discovered that the BWCAW comprises less then 1% of the U.S. National Wilderness Areas yet receives greater then 10% of the recreational activity. What effect does this recreational density have on the quality of the wilderness?

No one really knows. Studies have not been completed. That’s why my brother and I have decided to check it out. We are going to paddle the BWCAW from west to east documenting, collecting, and packing out all the trash we encounter along the way. We will inventory and catalog everything we find and create trash density maps to aid wilderness resource managers focus education and clean up efforts. Who knows, maybe we will inspire others to clean up the BWCAW next year on National Public Lands Day and every day.

Check out our blog for updates and we'll check in following the trip to report our findings.

Jul
04
2011

Camp Carnegie in Wyoming in 1899: Arthur Coggeshall, sitting far right and donning suspenders, poses for a photograph taken near the Carnegie museum's Sheep Creek quarry in Wyoming. Crews from the American Museum of Natural History and the Carnegie Museum met on the High Plains during the quarrying of Diplodocus carnegii. Standing, left to right: W. D. Mathew, R. S. Lull, H. F. Osborn, W. J. Holland, (unknown on wagon - possibly Willie Reed), Jacob Wortman (with pipe), W. H. Reed. Sitting left to right: Walter Granger, George Mellor, Ira Schallenberger, and  Coggeshall.
Camp Carnegie in Wyoming in 1899: Arthur Coggeshall, sitting far right and donning suspenders, poses for a photograph taken near the Carnegie museum's Sheep Creek quarry in Wyoming. Crews from the American Museum of Natural History and the Carnegie Museum met on the High Plains during the quarrying of Diplodocus carnegii. Standing, left to right: W. D. Mathew, R. S. Lull, H. F. Osborn, W. J. Holland, (unknown on wagon - possibly Willie Reed), Jacob Wortman (with pipe), W. H. Reed. Sitting left to right: Walter Granger, George Mellor, Ira Schallenberger, and Coggeshall.Courtesy Mark Ryan
Back in the summer of 1899, on the Fourth of July, the first bones of a long-dead dinosaur were discovered in the wilds of Wyoming that would soon fire the imagination of the world and popularize dinosaurs in a way that wouldn’t be equaled again until the release of Jurassic Park nearly a century later. The dinosaur would soon bear the name Diplodocus carnegii in honor of Andrew Carnegie, who financed its discovery through his Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Carnegie’s dinosaur would eventually be nicknamed Dippy, but Arthur S. Coggeshall, a major player in its discovery suggested a better name: the Star-Spangled Dinosaur. Coggeshall had a good point. Not just because the celebrated sauropod had been found on Independence Day, but in the ensuing years, Dippy would become one of the greatest ambassadors not only for the growing science of vertebrate paleontology but for the United States itself.

The story of Dippy actually began seven months before in November of 1898 when a full-page error-ridden article appeared in a New York newspaper proclaiming “The Most Colossal Animal Ever on Earth“ had just been dug up in Wyoming. The headline caught the eye of steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie and he suddenly decided he wanted the dinosaur (named in the article as Brontosaurus giganteus) for his recently opened Pittsburgh Museum. So in the margin of the paper, Carnegie scribbled a note to William Holland, curator of the museum that read: “can you buy this for Pittsburgh?”

Holland immediately contacted the man mentioned in the article and offered to buy the dinosaur skeleton flat out. The discoverer, Bill Reed of the University of Wyoming, explained that the news story was grossly distorted and riddled with inaccuracies. There was no skeleton, no Brontosaurus giganteus, only a fragment of the end of a very large thighbone he had found in the nearby Freezeout Hills. But Reed, who probably knew the fossil fields of Wyoming better than any man in the state, offered his services to locate and dig up the rest of the skeleton in the next spring after the snow melted.

By the time spring arrived, Reed had resigned his position at the University of Wyoming and was under a one-year contract with the Carnegie museum. This is where Arthur Coggeshall comes into the picture. He and another man, Jacob Wortman, were working in the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology of New York’s American Museum of Natural History; Coggeshall as a preparator (a person who prepares fossils for study and display) and Wortman, as a curator. The AMNH was one of finest museum institutes in the country and the Carnegie museum’s main competitor. Coggeshall - at just 25 years old - was considered one of the best preparators of his time, and Wortman was no slouch either. But both men were lured away by Holland (and no doubt Carnegie’s money) and soon joined Reed in Medicine Bow to set out and find dinosaurs for the Carnegie Museum.

The trip to the Freezeout Hills northwest of Medicine Bow was miserable. The horse-drawn wagons, laden with a ton of tools and supplies slogged across the High Plains and had to be unloaded and loaded several times to cross makeshift bridges or ford swollen streams. They eventually reached the site where Reed’s colossal fossil had been dug up, but after nearly two months of searching not much fossil additional material was found, certainly not enough to fill Andrew Carnegie’s museum.

Discouraged the men headed eastward about 30 miles where Reed said he knew of other prospects in the dinosaur-rich Morrison Formation. They arrived in Sheep Creek Basin and set up camp there on July 3, 1899.

The Titans of Paleontology in 1899: Paleontologists from the American Museum drop in on paleontologists working the Carnegie quarry at Sheep Creek in Wyoming. Jacob Wortman crouches next to the Diplodocus bones exposed on the quarry floor. The rest of those present are (L-R) Bill Reed, Albert Thompson, William Holland, Henry F. Osborn, W. D. Mathews, Walter Granger, and R. S. Lull. Arthur Coggeshall may have taken the photo.
The Titans of Paleontology in 1899: Paleontologists from the American Museum drop in on paleontologists working the Carnegie quarry at Sheep Creek in Wyoming. Jacob Wortman crouches next to the Diplodocus bones exposed on the quarry floor. The rest of those present are (L-R) Bill Reed, Albert Thompson, William Holland, Henry F. Osborn, W. D. Mathews, Walter Granger, and R. S. Lull. Arthur Coggeshall may have taken the photo.Courtesy Mark Ryan

The next day their luck suddenly took a change for the better. The exact story of the find gets a little confusing. In a 1951 retelling in Carnegie Magazine, Arthur Coggeshall claims he made the initial discovery.

"It was then that the heartbeats of the writer really became loud,” he wrote, “for it was the best prospect any of us had discovered in over two months of hard and disappointing work, and we did so want to make good with a dinosaur for Mr. Carnegie."

Two other accounts (one by Wortman in 1916, and one by paleontologist C. W. Gilmore in 1936) claim Bill Reed found the first remains, and I think the priority of these claims give them more veracity – especially since Wortman was there. But history like anything else has a way of evolving through time and memory.

Whatever the case, they had finally found a dinosaur, and over the summer the skeleton was exhumed, packed up, and shipped back to Pittsburgh. By coincidence, a flock of scientists from around the country and Canada were roaming the state that summer as part of an event called Fossil Fields Expedition sponsored jointly by the Union Pacific Railroad and University of Wyoming. The railroad offered scientists and academics free passage to Laramie, and Wilbur Knight of the UW gave guided tours to many of the state’s geological and paleontological locations where they could take in the scenery and collect rocks and fossils. Many involved in the expedition stopped by the Carnegie’s Sheep Creek quarry to watch the progress there. Paleontologists from the American Museum of Natural History were also in the area digging up their own dinosaurs at the nearby Bone Cabin Quarry. Some of that crew (including Wortman’s and Coggeshall’s old boss, Henry Fairfield Osborn) made the ten-mile trip for a visit and friendly exchange.

When the field season ended, the Carnegie team returned to Pittsburgh to start the process of preparing the fossils. Over the winter it became apparent that some bones of the Diplodocus were missing so further expeditions were mounted and remains of three more specimens of Diplodocus were gathered from Sheep Creek and the Big Horns region of Wyoming to complete the skeleton.

As Coggeshall and Reed prepared the bones, paleontologist John Bell Hatcher (who had been hired as curator to replace the short-lived Wortman) made an exhaustive study of the fossils and determined the remains were those of a new species, which he named Diplodocus carnegii in honor of the museum’s benefactor. Mr. Carnegie’s friends soon nicknamed the dinosaur, Dippy.

The process of preparing and mounting a dinosaur skeleton for display, especially one that’s 84 feet long is an onerous task, requiring thousands of man-hours and several years to complete. As the Carnegie’s preparator-in-chief, Arthur Coggeshall devised new methods for fossil preparation, and for mounting large dinosaur skeletons that are still used today. He innovated the use of pneumatic hammers and sandblasting in the laboratory for extracting fossil bone from hard rock, and for mounting the Carnegie sauropod, he fashioned a curved steel rod upon which all the vertebrae were assembled. Then, as other bones were added to the skeleton, additional steel was used - as inconspicuously as possible - to reinforce and attach them to the vertebral column.

A dinosaur for Paris: Arthur Coggeshall (sitting at left with legs crossed) poses with workers and William Holland (on Coggeshall's immediate left) at the Paris museum during the mounting of the cast of Dipolodocus carnegii, c. 1908.
A dinosaur for Paris: Arthur Coggeshall (sitting at left with legs crossed) poses with workers and William Holland (on Coggeshall's immediate left) at the Paris museum during the mounting of the cast of Dipolodocus carnegii, c. 1908.Courtesy Library of Congress
But even before Dippy went on display at the Carnegie museum (for which a new wing was being built), the Diplodocus became a sensation worldwide. King Edward VII while visiting Andrew Carnegie at his Skibo Castle in Scotland saw a drawing of the Diplodocus and coveted one for himself. Carnegie obliged the king by having Coggeshall create molds for an exact plaster cast of the dinosaur. Italian sculptors were hired to fashion a few of the missing bones. Since the dinosaur wing of the Carnegie museum was still under construction, Coggeshall and two assistants used his ingenious steel framework to set up and then disassembled a test-mount of the king’s cast in the Pittsburgh Exposition Building. The cast elements were then packed up and shipped to England in 1905. Holland and Coggeshall accompanied the 30 some crates of disassembled bones and supervised the mounting of the king’s dinosaur at the British Museum. On May 12th, under much hoopla and fanfare, Andrew Carnegie himself was on hand to present his namesake dinosaur to the king of England and the world.

This became the first of several casts that Carnegie would donate to the heads-of-state in several European and South American capitols. The original skeleton was finally unveiled in Pittsburg in 1907 when the newly finished Dinosaur Hall was opened. After that Arthur Coggeshall spent the next five years traveling to foreign cities across three continents to mount exquisite copies of Carnegie’s pride and joy. Coggeshall and Holland were feted and celebrated in each city and bestowed with special honors and awards as they erected and presented each beautiful cast of Andrew Carnegie’s own dinosaur. As hard as it is to believe today, these replicas of italicizedDiplodocus carnegii presented millions of people their first chance ever to see a dinosaur, and in each city, hoards of the public clamored to see them.

In 1909, Carnegie paleontologist Earl Douglass discovered the extremely rich bone-bed in northeastern Utah that would eventually become Dinosaur National Monument. By then Coggeshall had added Curator of Public Education to his title, and besides supervising the preparation and mounting of the skeletons, he also documented the new dinosaur site by taking many of the historic photographs of quarry work being done there.

Soon after, Coggeshall left the Carnegie and turned his attention to science lecturing and museum administration. Now come’s the kicker to this story. In 1928, Coggeshall became the director of the St. Paul Institute of Science in St. Paul, Minnesota, the precursor to the Science Museum of Minnesota, the very entity for which I’m writing! Coggeshall served as director for just one year, but in that short time he helped redirect the institute toward becoming a more modern organization. While in Minnesota, he also gave several hour-long educational lectures in and around the state. Known as The Coggeshall Lectures, his subjects included paleontology, archaeology and other natural science topics and were often illustrated with glass slides or motion pictures. Some titles, such as “Turning Back the Clock Ten Million Years” and “Hunting Big Game in the Rocks”, were based on Coggeshall’s work in paleontology.

Arthur Coggeshall went on to serve as director to the Illinois State Museum in Springfield, and then the Natural History Museum in Santa Barbara, California. He died in 1958, but his many innovations in fossil preparation and mounting large dinosaur exhibitions are still used in today’s museums. His most memorable accomplishment, the Star-Spangled Dinosaur called Dippy is still on view at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh as well as in museums on three continents. Not a bad legacy for a guy with a public school education from Bridgeport, Connecticut.

SOURCES
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette story
From Trophies to Treasure
Dippy unveiled (previous Buzz story)
History of Dinosaur National Monument

Mar
18
2011
It's Friday, so it's time for a new Science Friday video. Science Friday
Science FridayCourtesy Science Friday
Today,
"Of the orchid genus catasetum, Charles Darwin wrote: "I never was more interested in any subject in all my life than in this of Orchids." The male flowers in this genus evolved an unusual pollination program. They propel a package of pollen onto the backs of visiting bees. The bees endure the blow (which would be like a 150-pound person getting hit with a few bowling balls) in exchange for orchid aromas that the bees use to attract mates.
Mar
14
2011

Buzzketeers, it's a big problem.

A ginormous, hulking, frozen, messy problem.

See, here in St. Paul, we've had a very snowy winter. (As of today, it has been the seventh snowiest winter on record. And the snow season isn't over yet.) When the City plows the streets, they have to put the snow somewhere. And one of the places they put it is the parking lot of the St. Paul Saints Midway Stadium, on Energy Park Drive.

The result?
Mt. Midway: Looking NNW from the few open parking spaces off Energy Park Drive. See those little bamboo fronds at the peak? Who needs Hawaii?
Mt. Midway: Looking NNW from the few open parking spaces off Energy Park Drive. See those little bamboo fronds at the peak? Who needs Hawaii?Courtesy Liza Pryor

The 550-spot parking lot is completely -- and I mean COMPLETELY -- covered with snow. It's 30, even 50, feet deep. And it goes from Energy Park Drive north to the train tracks, and from the stadium west to the end of the property. It's impressive, peeps.

It goes on...: and on...and on...I'm standing on the snow pile, with the peak with the tree to my left (west) looking north toward the train tracks.
It goes on...: and on...and on...I'm standing on the snow pile, with the peak with the tree to my left (west) looking north toward the train tracks.Courtesy Liza Pryor

And here's the problem, friends: the St. Paul Saints season opener is May 8th. And there's no way all this snow is going to melt before then. Baseball needs its parking lot back.

More pictures of Mt. Midway.

So how can we get rid of the snow? Trucking it away isn't an option, and minimal use of fossil fuels is a good thing. Buzzers, it's time to go all Mythbusters here and submit your ideas. If you've got a good one, you might get to see it in action.

Feb
25
2011

Archaeopteryx: Thermopolis specimen.
Archaeopteryx: Thermopolis specimen.Courtesy Mark Ryan
This year marks the 150th anniversary of the announced discovery of the first fossils of Archaeopteryx, a remarkable chimera of both bird and reptile traits. The first evidence identified was a single feather discovered at a limestone quarry in Solnhofen, Germany. This was in 1860. The German paleontologist Hermann von Meyer described the fossil in 1861, naming it Archaeopteryx lithographica. That same year, the first skeletal remains came to light, and although headless, the London specimen, as it became known, showed clearly both avian and reptilian characteristics.

The unique and iconic fossil appeared just two years after publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species and helped bolster the naturalist’s theory of evolution through natural selection because its appeared to be a transitional fossil between reptile (dinosaur) and bird. Could Darwin have asked for any better evidence?

Since then nine other specimens have been found, including the Berlin specimen around 1877, which is considered one of most complete. For many years some Archaeopteryx specimens languished in collection drawers because they had been initially misidentified as another creature entirely. In 1970, Yale paleontologist John Ostrom was investigating a so-called pteradactyl fossil at a museum in the Netherlands, when he realized it had been misidentified and was actually an Archaeopteryx. The fossil had been found at Solhofen in 1855, five years prior to the feather! The museum curator was so shaken by Ostrom’s announcement, he clumsily wrapped the specimen in a paper bag and presented it to Ostrom so he could take it back to Yale for further study. Ostrom, by the way, re-ignited the “birds are dinosaurs” debate in the 1960s after his discovery of Deinonychus and his comparison of its structural features with those of birds.

The Thermopolis specimen, the latest Archaeopteryx fossil, became known around 2005 and was donated anonymously to the Wyoming Dinosaur Center in Thermopolis, Wyoming. I happened to visit the museum in June of 2007 during the first week the fossil went on public display, and was able to see the spectacular specimen firsthand. The small fossil (about 1.5 feet square) was displayed behind a small, glass opening in the wall. There was no crowd to speak of so I was able to take in and photograph the fossil for a long stretch of time by myself. Looking at it, your eye is immediately drawn to the distinct feather impressions evident on both its wings and tail. The head, arms, and legs are spread out across the slab, and even though it died 150 million years ago, it looks as flat and fresh as road kill on a modern highway.

About the size of a large crow, Archaeopteryx was an odd amalgam of both bird and reptile. It had slightly asymmetrical flight feathers, wings, and a furcula (wishbone) - all traits found in birds. But its pelvis, skull and sharp teeth were reptilian (although some skull features are bird-like), and it ha a long tail like a reptile. Its bones weren’t hollow, like the bones of modern birds are, nor is its sternum (breastbone) very pronounced; it’s flatter and without a large keel where, in birds, muscles flight are attached. And it also possesses gastralia (“belly ribs”), a feature found in reptiles and dinosaurs. The inner toe (the hallux) in the Thermopolis specimen doesn’t appear to be reversed so it couldn't grasp or perch and was probably more earth-bound than arboreal. Interestingly, its second toe was extensible – meaning it could be pulled back and elevated for tearing into flesh, just like the middle toes of such dinosaurs as Troodon and Velociraptor. Truth be told, if its feathers hadn’t been preserved, Archaeopteryx would have been classified a carnivorous bipedal dinosaur. In fact, one of the existing Archaeopteryx fossil was first identified as a Compsognathus until preparation revealed its feathers.

Solnhofen and much of Europe in the Late Jurassic: A cluster of islands off the coast of the North American continent.
Solnhofen and much of Europe in the Late Jurassic: A cluster of islands off the coast of the North American continent.Courtesy Ron Blakey, NAU Geology
So what kind of environment did Archaeopteryx live in, and why are its fossils so well preserved? Well, during the Late Jurassic, southern Germany and much of the rest of Europe were pretty much a group of large islands poking out of the Tethys Sea off the coast of North America. What is today the Solnhofen quarry was then part of an island lagoon protected by a barrier reef. Geological evidence in the strata suggests the lagoon dried up several times followed by periods of re-flooding with seawater. Mixed into a brackish soup of coral debris and mud, and in a warm climate conducive to rapid evaporation, the lagoon’s bottom water levels became anoxic, that is depleted of oxygen. Low oxygen meant less bacterial activity and subsequently slow decomposition of any organism that happened to die or get swept into the stagnant lagoon. Burial in the carbonate muck was swift, leaving fresh carcasses no time to be pulled apart by currents or scavengers.

Solnhofen limestone has been used for centuries as a building stone. Because the rock’s matrix is so fine and splits so evenly (sediment deposition likely occurred in very calm waters), the material was later quarried to produce stones for lithography, a printing technique first developed in 1796, and the source of Archaeoperyx’s species designation. Many early scientific illustrations, including some of the first images ofArchaeopteryx were preserved as lithographs created using Solnhofen limestone.

Archaeopteryx commorative coin: Germany will issue the 10 Euro coin in the summer of 2011
Archaeopteryx commorative coin: Germany will issue the 10 Euro coin in the summer of 2011Courtesy Federal Republic of Germany
Solnhofen’s fossil record shows that the lagoon’s biological population was diverse. Fish, turtles, lizards and insects, crocodiles, crustaceans, ammonites, squid and starfish, mollusks, pterosaurs, and even the soft remains of jellyfish are preserved in the fine-grained limestone. But the premiere creature is of course the Archaeopteryx, which remains the earliest bird (or most bird-like dinosaur, if you will) known to date. As research on existing specimens continues and new fossils appear it's exciting to imagine what advances will take place in the dinosaur-bird connection debate. Whatever happens, Archaeopteryx lithographica will remain one of the most significant and iconic fossils ever discovered. It's no wonder that later this year on August 11th, the Federal Republic of Germany will issue a 10 Euro silver coin to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the discovery of its most famous fossil.

SOURCES and LINKS

Witmer Lab Archaeopteryx blog
UCMP Archaeopteryx page
Solnhofen limestone of the Jurassic

Dec
27
2010

I can’t believe no one has posted on this yet.

There is poll running for the weirdest science story of the year. Past winners have included: glow-in-the-dark cats and a 2,700 year-old pot stash, among others.

Nominees for this year’s poll include (I am listing only my favorites, make sure to check out the complete list and vote):

Scientists work on artificial cat brain
Fish fear their own reflections
Mammoths ate their own poo

There are lots more. It’s fun reading. Educational to boot!

Dec
11
2010

John James Audubon: portrait by John Syme, 1826
John James Audubon: portrait by John Syme, 1826Courtesy Wikimedia Commons
A rare copy of naturalist and artist John James Audubon’s epic book, Birds of America, just sold at Sotheby’s auction for more than $10 million. That’s an enormous sum considering the book is essentially a work of natural history illustration. Also known as the Double Elephant Folio because of its large size, the massive tome opens to 4 feet across and contains hundreds of plates of exquisitely drawn, life-sized paintings of birds in their natural settings. It’s considered one of the greatest collections of natural history illustrations in the world, and I have to admit, after researching the story behind this stunning collection of work, and its creator, I understand why it's so valuable.

Flamingo: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICA
Flamingo: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikimedia Commons
In the early 19th century, the Haitian-born Audubon (1785 - 1851) traveled across the eastern and central United States -often alone, sometimes with an assistant- to gather images of over 500 known species of bird. He would often draw them from life, but sometimes killed his avian subjects and posed them with wires in order to capture them on paper. The latter technique guaranteed the birds wouldn’t fly off. He used all sorts of media considered unconventional at the time to create his masterpiece images. Backgrounds were created sometimes by the artist himself but more often by several assistants.

Virginian Partridge: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICA
Virginian Partridge: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikimedia Commons
Audubon developed his deep interest in birds and natural history as a child growing up in France. At age 18 he arrived in the United States (as an illegal immigrant, mind you) where he honed his passion in ornithology in the woods surrounding the family property near Philadelphia. White Gerfalcons: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICA
White Gerfalcons: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikimedia Commons
During his early days in America he worked at improving his drawing techniques, and became skilled at specimen preparation and taxidermy, even working for a time in that capacity at a museum in Cincinnati. On a return trip to France he met naturalist Charles-Marie D’Orbigny who schooled him in scientific methods of research and offered tips to improve his taxidermy skills.

Canada Goose: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICA
Canada Goose: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikimedia Commons
The book Birds of America was a well-planned venture long before it finally came to fruition. Audubon had the title in mind when he set about in 1820 to paint every known bird in America. His goal was to eventually produce a body of work that would far surpass any other in existence. And he did exactly that. For nearly three years he roamed down the Mississippi River and across the American frontier searching out specimens to paint, sometimes purchasing them from local hunters.

Mourning doves: from BIRDS OF AMERICA
Mourning doves: from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikipedia
At the time Alexander Wilson was considered the leading ornithologist and painter of birds. He had cataloged most known birds in the country but his renderings were somewhat stiff and lifeless. Audubon worked persistently to make the birds in his drawings come to life, placing them in their natural ecosystems, often in active and dramatic poses. A single illustration would sometimes portray several species of bird.

Natural history illustration was and remains to this day crucial in disseminating scientific knowledge about the natural world. Detailed illustrations, graphics, and photographs help convey what's being explained in the text. Sometimes all the facets come together perfectly. Such is the case with Birds of America; its high regard is based on both its level of visual artistry and scientific information.

Since American printers couldn’t accommodate the oversize plates he insisted upon using, Audubon traveled to Great Britain where his paintings (and he himself) became an overnight sensation. The Brits were eager to learn anything about the new American frontier, its people and environs. The book’s original edition was printed by engraver Robert Havell (and son) starting in 1826. The process of engraving and printing all 435 plates took a dozen years and cost Audubon $111,640, a huge sum for the time. He financed the initial printing mainly through advance subscriptions, exhibitions, and lectures (a teen-aged Charles Darwin attended one of these).

Golden Eagle: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICA
Golden Eagle: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikimedia Commons
Initially, four title pages were sent to subscribers (including King George IV, an admirer of Audubon). Prints were then issued in groups of five with the idea the buyers – if they chose to do so - would bind them together at their own cost. Each separate illustration was printed in black and white using etching and aquatint techniques on large copper plates 39 x 28 in dimension. They were then each hand-painted by an army of colorists, a technique common in the 19th Century. An accompanying volume of text titled Ornithological Biographies was later added for each of the four plate volumes. The biographies match the illustrations in their scope. Audubon (aided by ornithologist William MacGillivray) gives a detailed description of each bird’s features (including drawings of internal organs), their behaviors, and the environments in which they lived.

Ivory-billed Woodpecker: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICA
Ivory-billed Woodpecker: plate from BIRDS OF AMERICACourtesy Wikimedia Commons
Audubon originally published about 750 copies of Birds of America of which only 219 copies are extant today. Of those, only 119 complete copies exist, most of which are in museum and library collections. Eleven copies are in private hands and this latest intact volume is one of two to be auctioned in the last decade. Over the years, many of the original editions were broken up and sold as individual illustrations. But with so few intact editions available now their value has skyrocketed against the amount single prints would attract.

After his death, Audubon’s wife sold most of the original paintings reproduced in Birds of America to the New York Historical Society for $4000! Luckily for us, the originals are occasionally put on display there, and that would be something to see. Audubon’s final project titled Vivaraporous Quadrupeds of North America was completed posthumously by his sons.

You'd be hard pressed to name a work of as monumental as Birds of America in terms of art and science, as it's considered by many to be one of the most important natural history books in existence. And Audubon was served well by it both financially and the worldwide acclaim it brought him. He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Linnaean Society, and was only the second American to be named a fellow by London's Royal Society (Ben Franklin was the first). Charles Darwin made three mentions of Audubon’s work in his own book On the Origin of Species. The ornithological organization the National Audubon Society is named in his honor. Not a bad legacy for a backwoods kid who just loved birds.

LINKS and INFO
Complete Birds of America (with biographies) at Univ. of Pittsburgh
Book auction story
Audubon bio
The Havell Edition
Audubon Minnesota
St. Paul Audubon Society

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