Stories tagged productivity


An Instant Classic: Hey, Aesop, what if I told you Mr. Hare won the race?
An Instant Classic: Hey, Aesop, what if I told you Mr. Hare won the race?Courtesy Milo Winter

You’re probably familiar with Aesop’s classic fable The Tortoise and the Hare: Mr. Hare challenges Mr. Tortoise to a foot race. Mr. Tortoise accepts. Mr. Hare dashes from the start line, but stops just before the finish line to take a nap. In the meantime, Mr. Tortoise plods along to win the race!! The moral of the story? University of Minnesota professor and Institute on the Environment resident fellow, Dr. Peter Reich’s award-winning take on the fable may surprise you.

Dr. Peter Reich: This guy studies leaves for a living.
Dr. Peter Reich: This guy studies leaves for a living.Courtesy Regents of the University of Minnesota

Dr. Reich studies leaves. In particular, Dr. Reich has discovered three characteristics of leaves that allow researchers to identify where and how plants live: longevity, productivity, and nitrogen content. Longevity measures how old a leaf lives. Did you know leaves in the tropics live only 5-6 weeks whereas Canadian spruce leaves can live up to 18 years old? Productivity measures how much sugar the leaf makes (yes, leaves make sugar called “glucose,” which nearly every animal uses to fuel their body – that’s why your momma tells you to eat your vegetables!). Finally, nitrogen is like a vitamin for plants: they need it to grow big and strong. How much nitrogen a leaf has is important because it determines how much energy a plant can make.

Canadian Spruce: If these leaves were human, they could be legal adults!
Canadian Spruce: If these leaves were human, they could be legal adults!Courtesy Steven J. Baskauf

Tropical Leaves: These guys may look BIG, but they are not going to be around for long.
Tropical Leaves: These guys may look BIG, but they are not going to be around for long.Courtesy Flickr

What about the moral of The Tortoise and the Hare? Dr. Reich’s research says there are basically two types of leaves: ones that are like Mr. Tortoise and ones like Mr. Hare. Tortoise-like leaves work slowly, but steadily. They’re the marathon runners of the leaf world. Hare-like leaves work really fast! But they can’t keep it up for long. They’re sprinters. Could you run a marathon at your top sprinting speed? Probably not, and neither can leaves be both ultra-fast and long-lasting at the same time. Instead, leaves “tradeoff” speed for endurance. Like human runners, leaves don’t have to be all fast and short-lived or all slow and long-lived; they can fall somewhere inbetween and be medium speed and medium-lived.

So who cares about marathon and sprinting leaves anyway? Lots of people! Dr. Reich just won the BBVA Frontiers of Knowledge Award in recognition of this important research. Being able to group the thousands of plants out in the world into a handful of groups is allowing scientists to do incredible research that can be used around the world.

For example, Dr. Reich’s newest research is looking at the different responses of tortoise-leaves versus hare-leaves to changing environments, such as higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air caused by climate change. As each generation of leaves reproduces, new genetic combinations are created. New genetic traits that are helpful to the plant’s survival are passed on to the next generation. The more genetic combinations created, the better chance a species has of “finding” the right traits in a changing environment. This is where Dr. Reich’s interpretation of the moral of The Tortoise and the Hare may surprise you: because hare-leaves have fast, short lives, they reproduce more genetic combinations and are better able to deal with change. Tortoise-leaves will struggle more to adapt. That is, for leaves, slow and steady does not always win the race!

Want to know more?? Dr. Reich recently gave a lecture as part of the Institute on the Environment’s Frontiers on the Environment series. You can hear it here.


2.6 billion people lack adequate access to toilets

Searching for relief
Searching for reliefCourtesy Heidigoseek
To cut the number of people without access to a toilet in half by 2015 would cost $38 billion (that is less than 1% of annual world military spending). That investment, however, would yield $347 billion worth of benefits -- much of it related to higher productivity and improved health.

Experts estimate that $9 in productivity, health and other benefits are returned for every dollar invested installing toilets for people in countries that today are off-track in meeting the UN Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation.

What do you do when there are no bathrooms?

How much time do you think people without toilets spend each day looking for an appropriate place to relieve themselves. If we say 30 minutes each day that works out to 15 hours per month. That equals about two working days per month which could have been used for productive work.

Lack of toilets results in disease and missed work

The lack of toilets results in untreated human waste being dumped into the environment. Diarrhoeal disease kills 1.8 million people each year.

As a result, humans are regularly exposed to bacteria, viruses and parasites -- spread through direct or indirect contact with these watercourses. Such exposure is the leading cause for diarrhoeal disease (including dysentery and cholera), parasitic infections, worm infestations and trachoma.

Globally, $552 million in direct health treatment costs would be avoided by meeting the MDG sanitation target.

Areas with least access to toilets

  • West and Central Africa 36 %
  • South Asia 37 %
  • Eastern and Southern Africa 38 %
  • East Asia/Pacific region 51%

Between 1990 and 2004, an estimated 1.2 billion people gained access to improved sanitation, an increase of 10 percent. Cutting the number of people without access to a toilet in half by 2015 is the UN Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation.

National level support for universal sanitation needed

Investment into sanitation can lead to economic benefits for communities. According to UN experts, a single, country-wide sanitation plan is needed. Appealing to consumer preferences for convenience, comfort, safety, cleanliness and prestige has been more successful than health-oriented information campaigns.

Source: United Nations University via EurekaAlert.